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A 39-year-old male cigarette smoker with a past history of thrombophlebitis presents with lower extremity rest pain. An arteriogram shows distal arterial occlusive disease with prominent “cork-screw” collateral vessels. What is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"A 54-year-old schizophrenic woman complains of cough and dyspnea. Based on the chest radiograph and pulmonary arteriogram, Which one of the following is the MOST likely diagnosis?


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"A 29-year-old woman with a history of IV drug abuse presents with spiking fevers and bilateral lower extremity pain. On physical examination, she has a heart murmur as well as decreased lower extremity pulses. Based on two images from an abdominal aortogram, and one image from a pelvic arteriogram, which one of the following is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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"A 37-year-old man underwent arteriography because of upper GI hemorrhage unresponsive to endoscopic therapy. Which one of the following is the name of the labeled artery?

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"A 54-year-old woman with a history of cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and recurrent GI hemorrhage presented with lower GI bleeding. Visceral arteriography was performed. Based on this film from the venous phase of a superior mesenteric arteriogram, which one of the following is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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"A 17-year-old male is referred for angiography because of severe hypertension. His erythrocyte sedimentation rate is normal. Based on two films from an aortogram, which one of the following is the MOST likely diagnosis?


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"A 55-year-old female presents with recent onset of severe hypertension. You are shown an aortogram. Which one of the following is the best management option?

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"You are shown a venacavagram of a 58-year-old male performed prior to placement of an inferior vena caval filter. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

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"You are shown a celiac arteriogram and a superior mesenteric arteriogram of a 46-year-old male prior to hepatic chemoembolization. Which one of the following findings is present?

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"A 57-year-old female presents with acute left chest pain two weeks following a hemorrhagic stroke. She is hemodynamically stable. You are shown a pulmonary angiogram. What should the next step in this patient’s management should be?

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"You are shown a single image of a 71-year-old male who presents with an acutely ischemic left leg. Based on this single image, which one of the following is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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"An 18-year-old male victim of a motor vehicle accident had been hospitalized for 7 days. Acute development of decreasing hematocrit was noted. The study reflected in Figure 2 was performed. Which one of the following is the MOST likely explanation of this finding?

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"You are shown an image from a gadolinium-enhanced MR angiogram of a 78 year-old woman suspected of having mesenteric ischemia. Which one of the following collateral pathways is demonstrated?

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"You are shown a fluoroscopic image of a 33-year-old female undergoing placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter. Regarding the catheter position, which one of the following is the BEST answer?

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"A 50-year-old male is being evaluated for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. During the aortogram, abnormalities are noted, which result in selective mesenteric images being obtained. Which one of the following is the MOST likely etiology of these findings?


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"A 74-year-old man has had right-sided claudication for the past 4 weeks. You are shown an arteriogram at the level of the patient’s knees. What is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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"You are shown a chest film of a patient referred for your evaluation from an oncology office because of the inability to aspirate blood from the implanted port. What action do you take?

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Concerning the mechanism of radiofrequency tumor ablation, which is the MOST important parameter governing tissue destruction?

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You are asked to perform a pulmonary angiogram to confirm the presence of small peripheral pulmonary emboli. Which one is TRUE?

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"You are shown a reformatted image from a magnetic resonance arteriogram of the upper-abdominal aorta. What is the cause of the abnormality?

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"You are shown two images from a noncontrast abdominal CT requested by the ED for a patient with abdominal pain and fever. What should you tell the ED doctors?

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"The amount of scatter emerging from the patient during a fluoroscopy exam will be GREATEST at which direction indicated in the figure below? (Note: x-rays are emerging from under table tube).


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Concerning radiofrequency ablation, which of the following BEST describes the radiographic appearance of a successful result?

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Clinical improvement in critically ill ICU patients with acalculous cholecystitis and no other source of sepsis can be expected in approximately what percentage of cases following percutaneous cholecystostomy?

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Concerning catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis of iliofemoral DVT, which one of the following statements is TRUE?

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"Which of the following will result in the LOWEST skin dose to the patient during fluoroscopic procedures in terms of imaging geometry when the system is used with automatic brightness control?  (A cross-section from top to bottom of an image-intensifier, patient, tabletop, and x-ray tube is illustrated for each choice.)

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Three days after intraabdominal abscess drainage, the white count and fever have diminished, and the output through the drain has increased. What is the MOST LIKELY explanation?

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"AP views of the right lower abdomen were obtained during the early and late arterial phases of a superior mesenteric arteriogram. What is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"A 42-year-old woman remains symptomatic after undergoing prior treatment for a pelvic mass. What is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"You are shown two AP images and one lateral image from an abdominal aortogram of a woman who had undergone surgery for rheumatic heart disease that then required a revision. What is the MOST LIKELY etiology for the findings?


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"You are shown an image from a CT scan of the abdomen of a patient with right upper-quadrant pain, fever, and leukocytosis. What should be done NEXT?

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Concerning transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, which one of the following is TRUE?

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Asked to perform an indicated emergency IR procedure, you discover the patient has immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. What action should you take?

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Which of the following occurs when the magnification mode of an image intensifier is used in a fluoroscopy procedure compared to the non-magnification mode? (FOV = field of view)

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Carotid arteries are being evaluated with Doppler ultrasound prior to a CABG. A peak systolic velocity of 312 cm/sec measured in the left carotid artery is a reliable sign of:

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"You are shown a single image from a superior mesenteric arteriogram. Which one of the following collateral pathways is indicated by the arrow?

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"You are shown an aortogram and a selective left renal arteriogram from a young woman with hypertension. What is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"You are shown images of the chest before and after placement of a temporary dialysis catheter. What is responsible for the abnormal densities in the lungs?

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Regarding uterine artery embolization for the treatment of adenomyosis of the uterus, which of the following statements is TRUE?

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You are consulted about possibly placing an IVC filter in a patient with DVT who, although fully anticoagulated, has recurrent pulmonary embolism. Which of the following responses is CORRECT?

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What is the advantage of a surgically created endogenous arteriovenous fistula for patients requiring permanent hemodialysis?

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A patient is to be sent home with nephrostomy tubes in place. At what interval should the patient return to have the drains exchanged for new tubes?

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It is the standard of the Society of lnterventional Radiology that percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors is:

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A carotid duplex ultrasound is reported as showing 50% to 69% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. What parameter is reduced by 50% to 69%?

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Preliminary to percutaneous vertebroplasty for a painful osteoporotic fracture, it would be fair to tell a patient that there is an approximately 25% chance that:

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An interventional fluoroscopy procedure results in a patient skin entrance dose of 2 Gy. Which of the following radiation-induced skin injuries MOST LIKELY can occur?

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Following percutaneous cholecystostomy, the patient rapidly became afebrile and the white count reverted to normal.  When may the drainage catheter be safely removed?

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A patient with diffuse pedal ischemia, a nonhealing ulcer and focal gangrene of the foot was found to have an elevated rather than decreased ankle brachial index. Which of the following is the MOST LIKELY explanation?

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"You are shown an image from a digital subtraction angiogram of the hepatic artery. Which of the following is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"During the course of a pulmonary arteriogram, there was difficulty positioning a catheter into the right pulmonary artery. What structure is opacified?

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"You are shown a volume-rendered image, centered at the knees, from a CT angiogram of a young man with left calf claudication. What is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

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"A professional athlete, with no prior medical problems, presents with an acutely swollen right arm. Which of the following is the MOST appropriate treatment?

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"You are shown an image from a right renal arteriogram performed to evaluate a young woman recently discovered to be hypertensive. What is the MOST appropriate therapy?

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An elderly patient with diabetes mellitus, who is undergoing hemodialysis with a well-functioning brachial artery-cephalic vein fistula, reports having cold painful fingers during dialysis. The pain is relieved by manual compression of the fistula. These symptoms are MOST LIKELY caused by which of the following?

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If the blood pressure in the right arm measures 120 mm Hg, the left arm 100 mm Hg, the left dorsal pedis artery 80 mm Hg and the left posterior tibial artery 60 mm Hg, what is the left ankle-brachial index?

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In a modern interventional fluoroscopy system, it is required to display air-kerma (AK) along with dose-area-product (DAP). The AK is defined at:

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You are requested to place an inferior vena cava filter into a patient with a dilated vena cava measuring 38 mm in diameter. Which of the following filters would be MOST appropriate?

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A patient undergoes a femoropopliteal bypass graft that requires an angioplasty of the distal anastomosis at 1 year and then requires thrombolysis to restore patency 3 years following the original surgery. The graft fails 5 years following the bypass. What is the primary assisted patency of the graft in years?

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Comparing the long-term results of endovascular repair to open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, which of the following is TRUE?

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You are shown a chest radiograph obtained after the placement of a temporary hemodialysis catheter. Where is the catheter located?

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Concerning conscious sedation, which one of the following drugs may be used by an interventional radiologist to achieve the desired effect?

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Concerning uterine artery embolization (UAE), the EMMY Trial, a multicenter randomized comparison between UAE and hysterectomy for treatment of menorrhagia showed:

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A 52-year-old construction worker had bluish discoloration and numbness of the fifth finger of his right hand. You are shown an arteriogram of the right hand and wrist. The proximal arteries were intact. What is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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The patient presented with sudden onset of facial and upper extremity swelling. You are shown biplanar angiographic images. What action should be taken?

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"You are shown duplex Doppler ultrasound images of the right greater saphenous vein during a Valsalva maneuver. What is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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"Based on the single frontal and lateral abdominal aortogram images shown, the patient MOST likely was referred for the evaluation of which of the following?

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"You are shown an AP view from a percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiogram of a jaundiced patient. What is the MOST likely diagnosis?

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A patient presents with venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Which one of the following is a CONTRAINDICATION for catheter-based vein ablation?

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"An infusion port was placed in a patient with cancer of the right lung who previously underwent radiation therapy, but now requires chemotherapy. What is the MOST LIKELY location of the tip of the catheter?