THYROID

“THYROID CANCER”

“ Thyroid cancer is three-times more common in women. It usually presents with a palpable solitary nodule without thyroid dysfunction. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used for diagnosis. Features of thyroid malignancy ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join our …

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“PARATHYROID ADENOMA”

“ This is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and is benign. US •  Normal glands up to about four in number, 3-4 mm in width, hypoechoic nodules posterior to the thyroid gland (outside of the thyroid capsule).•  Adenomas cause parathyroid gland enlargement and hyperaemia. sensitivity of ultrasound in detection of parathyroid adenoma is …

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“GRAVE DISEASE”

“ This is an autoimmune disease associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies.  Typically, it presents with thyrotoxicosis, goitre and eye disease (bilateral enlargement of the extraocular muscles). US •  Enlarged gland, heterogeneous echotexture with spotty hypoechoic appearance•  Marked hyperaemia—‘thyroid inferno’ CT/MRI •  Useful for establishing a diagnosis of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy.•  Enlargement of the …

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“SIALOLITHIASIS”

“ Up to 90% of stones are found in Wharton’s ducts in the submandibular gland. Stones are typically solitary and radiopaque. Sialolithiasis may be complicated by abscess or sialadenitis. US • Echo-casting calculus with duct dilatation SIALOGRAM • Obstructing filling defect/opacity ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel …

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“HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS”

“ The typical patient is a 40-year-old woman with gradual enlargement of the thyroid. Patients are usually euthyroid; however, 20% present with hypothyroidism. There is an increased risk of malignancy, mostly non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rapid enlargement of the gland suggests malignancy. There is a low threshold for nodule biopsy (e.g. focal bulge, adenopathy, etc.). US • …

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THYROID IMAGING REPORTING AND DATA SYSTEM

“ THYROID IMAGING REPORTING AND DATA SYSTEM (TIRADS) TIRADS aims to provide a practical system for categorising thyroid nodules and stratifying the malignant risk. Comparable to breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) in breast imaging  ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case …

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ULTRASOUND OF THYROID NODULES

“ US •  Features of malignancy: frank invasion, solid hypoechoic mass, ill-defined margin, micro-lobulated margin, microcalcifications, taller than wide.•  In benign nodules, look for a complete hypoechoic halo (incomplete halo could be malignant), peripheral vascularity.•  Cystic nodules are usually benign (Note: 20% of papillary cancers are cystic).•  Comet-tail artefact is seen in colloidal cysts (benign).” …

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