RESPIRATORY

“PULMONARY OEDEMA”

“ The accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung. It is either due to increased fluid pressure (leading first to increased interstitial fluid, then to alveolar flooding) or to increased membrane permeability. PLAIN FILM •  Initially, there is vascular redistribution—‘upper lobe diversion’.•  Then, interstitial fluid and Kerley lines (Kerley A lines are 2-6 cm long, …

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“PULMONARY HYPERTENSION”

“ Divided into primary and secondary causes. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is due to either increased pulmonary blood flow (e.g. left to right shunt), decreased cross-sectional area of the pulmonary vasculature (e.g. pulmonary embolism) or increased resistance to pulmonary venous drainage (commonly due to left-sided heart disease). PLAIN FILM •  Look for an enlarged right descending …

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“PULMONARY SEQUESTRATION”

“ This is a non-functioning lung segment with no communication to the bronchial tree and a systemic arterial supply. It is more common in males. There are intralobar and extralobar type. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join our Telegram group: …

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“PULMONARY ALVEOLAR PROTEINOSIS”

“ Typically affecting middle-aged men, they present with a dry cough and clubbing. There is a strong association with smoking. It is mostly primary (90%). The rest arises due to acute silicosis, haematological malignancy or in the context of infection with immunosuppression (e.g. Cryptococcus, Nocardia or Aspergillus). Characterised by the filling of airspaces with proteinaceous fluid—the interstitium is not …

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“PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS”

“ Rare disease that is most common in smokers aged 30-40 years, thought to be due to antigen exposure (hence it predominates in the upper zones of the lungs). HRCT •  Early on, nodules are most common in the mid-upper zones. •  As the disease progresses, the nodules undergo cystic degeneration. •  Eventually, the cysts …

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DIFFERENTIALS FOR AN ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS

“ All the T’s 1.  Teratoma2. Thymoma3.  Thyroid4.  ‘Terrible’ lymphoma Look for increased lucency/low attenuation (fat) and calcification for teratoma. Lobulation and other lymph nodes for lymphoma. Pleural metatases for thymoma. Superior mediastinal extension for thyroid. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case …

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“THYMOMA AND THYMIC CARCINOMA”

“ Thymoma is the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum. It affects those aged 50-60 years most commonly. Associated with myasthenia gravis (35% of patients with thymomas have myasthenia gravis), red cell aplasia (50% develop thymoma) and hypogammaglobulinaemia. Thymoma  Is isointense to skeletal muscle on T1 weighted MRI images  CT  •  Imaging is not …

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