FRCR-RV-NOTES

SILTZBACH STAGING OF SARCOIDOSIS

“ 1.  Normal chest radiograph2.  Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement3.  Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement, parenchymal infiltration4.  Parenchymal infiltration5.  Parenchymal volume loss as a result of pulmonary fibrosis—20% get to stage 4 with irreversible fibrosis. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case …

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CYSTIC BRONCHIECTASIS

“ A string or cluster of cyst-like bronchi, the most severe kind of bronchiectasis. Causes include post-infectious (e.g. pertussis and unilobar), post-obstruction and Mounier-Kuhn syndrome. Plain film/HRCT  •  Cysts in clusters or strings •  Air-fluid levels commonly seen within the cysts Cystic bronchiectasis. Chest x-ray demonstrating ring shadows in keeping with cystic bronchiectasis. ” For …

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Imaging characteristics of intra- and extra-lobar sequestration [124]

“ Type Intra-lobar Extra-lobar Percentage 75% of cases 25% of cases Presentation Presents in adulthood with pain, infection and haemoptysis40-50% are associated with congenital anomalies  Presents in infancy with feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, cyanosis and heart failure Venous drainage Central drainage (‘intra’ = ‘central’ drainage) Systemic drainage via inferior vena cava, azygos or hemiazygos Arterial supply …

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CYLINDRICAL BRONCHIECTASIS

“ Relatively uniform, mild airway dilatation with parallel bronchial walls. Most common and least severe. Causes include cystic fibrosis (pan-lobar), hypogammaglobulinaemia (lower lobe) and Japanese panbronchiolitis (pan-lobar). Plain film •  Tram-track appearance (en face dilated airways) or ring shadows (axial appearance of dilated airways) •  Bronchial wall thickening HRCT •  ‘ Signet ring’ sign describes the axial view …

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“SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME”

“ Atypical pneumonia caused by a coronavirus. The imaging features are non-specific and indicative of diffuse alveolar damage. About 20% require intensive therapy unit (ITU) treatment; overall mortality about 10%. PLAIN FILM •  May be normal initially, progressing to airspace opacification. CT •  Ground-glass opacification/consolidation initially affecting the lower zones (commonly bilateral), then becoming widespread …

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DENTIGEROUS CYST?

“ Due to excessive fluid accumulation associated with the cap of unerupted molars (key to diagnosis). In total, 80% are mandibular and they rarely become malignant. The key features of cystic lesions in the maxilla and mandible are summarised in Table PLAIN FILM •  Well-corticated, unilocular cyst associated with an unerupted molar.•  Look for a fracture …

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“PULMONARY OEDEMA”

“ The accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung. It is either due to increased fluid pressure (leading first to increased interstitial fluid, then to alveolar flooding) or to increased membrane permeability. PLAIN FILM •  Initially, there is vascular redistribution—‘upper lobe diversion’.•  Then, interstitial fluid and Kerley lines (Kerley A lines are 2-6 cm long, …

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VARICOSE BRONCHIECTASIS

“ Bronchial lumen assumes a beaded (‘string of pearls’) configuration with sequential dilatation and constriction. Causes include ABPA,Swyer- James syndrome.  Plain film •  Beaded airway dilatation with or without mucous impaction (‘finger in glove’). •  ABPA tends to affect the upper lobes. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our …

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