CNS

“PROGRESSIVE SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY (PSP)”

“ This is a combination of Parkinson disease, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of downwards gaze), pseudobulbar palsy and early-onset dementia. MRI •  Atrophy of the midbrain, globus pallidus and frontal lobes•  Dilatation of the third ventricle, enlargement of the interpeduncular cistern ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube …

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“GLOBE CALCIFICATION”

“ Either bilateral (drusen—incidental and asymptomatic) or unilateral (choroidal osteoma—distal to the optic disc and associated with tuberous sclerosis). The extra-ocular muscles commonly calcify in the elderly. CT • Drusen appear as flat discs of calcification overlying the optic nerves. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel …

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“ALZHEIMER DISEASE”

“ This is the most common degenerative dementia. It affects up to 50% of those aged >85 years. CT/MRI •  Hippocampal atrophy is the cardinal feature. Perihippocampal fissures are more prominent.•  Focal atrophic change in the medial temporal lobe with subsequent marked enlargement of the temporal horns.•  Suprasellar cisterns and Sylvian fissures are also dilated …

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“SPONDYLOLISTHESIS”

“ Mostly due to either degenerative disease (facet joint hypertrophy and slip) or, in 10%, pars defects (i.e. spondylolysis).  It is commonly asymptomatic. Pars defects are thought to arise from microtrauma in childhood (e.g. gymnastics, etc.).  The defect in the pars contains fibrous material. PLAIN FILM •  Scotty dog sign on oblique lateral, Napolean’s hat …

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DIFFERENTIAL OF NECK MASSES IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS

“•  Childhood neck masses are benign in 90%; malignancy in this age group is most likely rhabdomyosarcoma or lymphoma.•  90% of adult neck masses are malignant. In those aged <40 years, lymphoma is most likely, and in those aged >40 years, metastasis is most likely.” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to …

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“GLOMUS TYMPANICUM PARAGANGLIONOMA”

“ This is the most common primary middle ear tumour in adults. It presents with pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss and 30% have a VII palsy. Examination demonstrates a pulsating cherry-red mass behind the tympanic membrane. Differentials include an aberrant carotid artery, persistent stapedial artery (look for an absent foramen spinosum) and jugular bulb variants. …

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“END-PLATE DEGENERATION”

“ Connected to back pain, though the precise link is controversial. MRI •  Disc degeneration with signal change paralleling the end plates.•  Signal characteristics are commonly classified according to the Modic system” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join our Telegram …

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