CNS NOTES

ULTRASOUND OF THYROID NODULES

“ US •  Features of malignancy: frank invasion, solid hypoechoic mass, ill-defined margin, micro-lobulated margin, microcalcifications, taller than wide.•  In benign nodules, look for a complete hypoechoic halo (incomplete halo could be malignant), peripheral vascularity.•  Cystic nodules are usually benign (Note: 20% of papillary cancers are cystic).•  Comet-tail artefact is seen in colloidal cysts (benign).” …

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“END-PLATE DEGENERATION”

“ Connected to back pain, though the precise link is controversial. MRI •  Disc degeneration with signal change paralleling the end plates.•  Signal characteristics are commonly classified according to the Modic system” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join our Telegram …

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Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease

“ X-linked disease leading to hypomyelination.  Typically presents in young males and has a protracted course. MRI Diffuse high T2 signal in the white matter with involvement of the sub-cortical U-fibres in all cases. Relative sparing of the perivascular white matter, which produces a ‘tigroid’ appearance like metachromatic leukodystrophy. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: …

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“HIV ENCEPHALITIS “

“ Causes atrophy of the white matter, especially the centrum semiovale.  In adults, it causes the ‘AIDS dementia complex’; in children, it causes HIV-associated progressive encephalopathy.  Appearances improve with treatment. MRI  •  Diffuse bilateral symmetrical periventricular white matter lesions with characteristic sparing of the grey matter•  No enhancement post-contrast•  Cerebral atrophy Axial T2  (a) and …

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“JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA”

“ This is the most common benign nasopharyngeal tumour. The typical scenario is a teenaged boy with epistaxis.  These are highly vascular tumours and can be locally aggressive. CT •  Densely enhancing mass involving the nasal wall, retromaxillary or pterygopalatine fossa.•  Widening of the pterygopalatine fossa in 90%—pathognomonic.•  Erosion of the medial pterygoid plate is …

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