CNS NOTES

DENTIGEROUS CYST?

“ Due to excessive fluid accumulation associated with the cap of unerupted molars (key to diagnosis). In total, 80% are mandibular and they rarely become malignant. The key features of cystic lesions in the maxilla and mandible are summarised in Table PLAIN FILM •  Well-corticated, unilocular cyst associated with an unerupted molar.•  Look for a fracture …

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FACETAL CYSTS

Facet joints degenerate like any other synovial joint. Facetal cysts may form containing fluid, blood or air and thus demonstrate a variable signal on magnetic resonance imaging. For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join our Telegram group: Radiology Made Easy   

“GLOBE CALCIFICATION”

“ Either bilateral (drusen—incidental and asymptomatic) or unilateral (choroidal osteoma—distal to the optic disc and associated with tuberous sclerosis). The extra-ocular muscles commonly calcify in the elderly. CT • Drusen appear as flat discs of calcification overlying the optic nerves. ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel …

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Orbital pseudotumour versus Grave disease

“ Pseudotumour Thyroid ophthalmopathy Symptoms Unilateral, painful ophthalmoplegia Bilateral, painless ophthalmoplegia Demographic Young adult females  Old adults Features Isolated involvement of lateral rectus Enhancement of the fat with contrast, fat stranding Involvement of the lacrimal gland Inferior rectus in Graves Increased retro-orbital fat ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe …

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“ODONTOGENIC KERATOCYST “

“ Aggressive behaving cystic mandibular/maxillary lesion, linked to Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (multiple keratocysts, kyphoscoliosis, bifid ribs and meningiomas). PLAIN FILM •  Expansile unilocular cystic mass with a sclerotic rim•  May displace or extrude teeth ” For Radiology Cases, Discussion join: Radiology Made Easy on Facebook  Subscribe to our youtube channel for FRCR radiology case discussion  Join …

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“HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS”

“ The typical patient is a 40-year-old woman with gradual enlargement of the thyroid. Patients are usually euthyroid; however, 20% present with hypothyroidism. There is an increased risk of malignancy, mostly non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rapid enlargement of the gland suggests malignancy. There is a low threshold for nodule biopsy (e.g. focal bulge, adenopathy, etc.). US • …

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“WILSON DISEASE”

“ This is an autosomal recessive disorder related to copper metabolism. Hepatic disease appears first, typically in late adolescence. MRI •  Variable signal abnormality mostly in the basal ganglia (especially the putamen) and midbrain (tegmentum).•  There may be high signal on T1 from the paramagnetic effects of copper, but mostly high T2.•  Characteristically, the red …

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“METACHROMATIC LEUKODYSTROPHY”

“ This is an autosomal recessive disease presenting at less than 2 years of age.  It is the most common leukodystrophy and is associated with gait disturbance and learning disability.  Death occurs within 5 years. MRI Progressive, symmetrical white matter lesions. It involves the periventricular white matter and cerebellum, but spares the subcortical white matter.  …

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“PARATHYROID ADENOMA”

“ This is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and is benign. US •  Normal glands up to about four in number, 3-4 mm in width, hypoechoic nodules posterior to the thyroid gland (outside of the thyroid capsule).•  Adenomas cause parathyroid gland enlargement and hyperaemia. sensitivity of ultrasound in detection of parathyroid adenoma is …

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