The accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung. It is either due to increased fluid pressure (leading first to increased interstitial fluid, then to alveolar flooding) or to increased membrane permeability.

•  Initially, there is vascular redistribution—‘upper lobe diversion’.
 Then, interstitial fluid and Kerley lines (Kerley A lines are 2-6 cm long, extend from the hila; Kerley B lines are <2 cm long, peripheral extending to the pleural surface).
•  Bilateral pleural effusions.
•  Finally, airspace opacities indicating alveolar flooding.
•  Cardiomegaly.


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