Associated with smoking and alcohol. In total, 90% are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), rarely adenoid cystic carcinomas (these characteristically invade the recurrent laryngeal nerve). Most laryngeal tumours (60%) are glottic—these tend to be small at diagnosis and have a good prognosis. Supraglottic tumours are often large when diagnosed. Subglottic tumours often represent tumour extension from above and have a poor prognosis.

•  Most useful for staging
•  Asymmetry of the vocal cords with an enhancing mass (may be very small)


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