Causes atrophy of the white matter, especially the centrum semiovale. 
In adults, it causes the ‘AIDS dementia complex’; in children, it causes HIV-associated progressive encephalopathy. 
Appearances improve with treatment.

•  Diffuse bilateral symmetrical periventricular white matter lesions with characteristic sparing of the grey matter
•  No enhancement post-contrast
 Cerebral atrophy

Axial T2  (a) and FLAIR (b) images showing diffuse white matter signal intensity with sparing of the grey matter. 
There is volume loss with prominence of the sulci. The appearance is in keeping with HIV encephalitis.


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